Which planter choice is right
Every agricultural process begins with the preparation of the foundation (soil) for the main action that determines all activities in this area - this is sowing seeds. To carry out this important operation, you will need reliable and productive equipment, since you can’t do something with a low-quality tool. Therefore, the question of how to choose a seeder is crucial for every farmer.
Everyone (not only farmers) knows the phrase: "What you sow, so you will...", but in modern conditions it should be modernized into - "as you sow, so much you reap."
The presence of a diverse assortment of any product cannot but rejoice, as it gives the opportunity and freedom of choice. But at the same time, this diversity complicates the selection process itself and the question is which planter choice will be right? becomes a problem, the solution of which requires additional awareness.
Let's classify them all first
First of all, for all agricultural firms, without exception, a reliable seeder, which is easy to operate, is suitable. There are several criteria for classifying seeders, here are the main and important ones:
- according to the method of seeding:
- mechanical seeders, the easiest to complete, in which the seeds are introduced into the soil without additional impact, that is, they are simply poured into the ground;
- pneumatic seeders, their use is considered more efficient, as it provides for the forced supply of seed material into the ground, which speeds up the sowing process and allows it to be done with more accurate dosage or control this process;
- solid seed drills, applicable for uniform seeding in full and mainly grain crops . which optimizes the use of all sections of the field due to the small row spacing, in some models of planters it is possible to change the distance between the rows. and the uniformity of seed application provides each of them with sufficient space for active growth;
- precision seeders, also called tilled, dotted, used for sowing grain, corn, sunflowerrow or belt method at regular intervals between rows, precision seeding makes it possible to control not only the density of the material (the distance between individual grains and between rows), but also its depth, the latter factor improves the ability to take into account local conditions and characteristics of the soil, field relief, climatic nuances, etc.
It was not difficult to notice that in the description of the seed drills, which differ in the way they were applied, it was about their rows. The number of rows when sowing is the main quality feature in the design of seeders, recently the choice of the unit according to this criterion has only expanded and there are already seeders with 6-36 rows. However, a large number of rows is not always better. In fact, it all depends on the type of crop and the characteristics of its sowing. such as:
- seed depth;
- distance between individual grains;
- purpose of cultivation (for silage or for grain);
- optimal selection of row spacing;
- the predisposition of a given crop to a heap application of seeds or their uniform placement in the ground.
And this is not a complete list of features that create the prerequisites for obtaining the maximum yield. It is the search for the optimal approach in sowing technology that obliges you to carefully select precision seed drill.
When choosing a seeder according to the sowing method, it is important to know the sowing methods themselves. Here are the main ones:
- seeding for silage, it is based on the introduction of seeds first along the field, and then across the rows, while the main and determining factor is not so much the accuracy of sowing . how fast is the row change;
- seeding square-nest method, when using this method, additional grain fertilizer is produced at the time of sowing and the ability to significantly increase the yield over the entire field area, another plus is the observance of absolute evenness of the rows . which reduces the level of grain losses during harvesting and simplifies the assembly itself;
- zigzag seeding, this method places seeds in a staggered pattern. which noticeably thins out the frequency of planting, simultaneously adding access to light and nutrition for each sown grain, with a double row of sowing with a distance between rows of 12.5 cm, the grains are shifted by half the standard interval, at the same time, the distance between the rows remains unchanged and equals 70 -ty cm, but using this method requires precision sowing, produced in recent years.
- by type of crops sown:
- Universal seeders, suitable for sowing most types of crops: cereals. legumes, oilseeds and herbs;
- special seeders, used when sowing certain crops with a strict adherence to a high quality and efficiency level, often used for sowing vegetables and corn.
Again about choosing a seeder according to the sowing method, but in the context: mechanics or pneumatics
Let's consider purely technical aspects of maintenance of these two types of seeders. What are the preferred characteristics of mechanical seeders, they are in:
- no need for seals and fans;
- in less stringent requirements for hydraulic characteristics of the tractor;
- in possible more accurate calibration of seeds;
- in the ability to carry out sowing work with less clean and uniform seeds.
It looks tempting, because it is simple, but it is this simplicity and undemanding conditions that contain the shortcomings that occur in mechanical seeders, and they are pushing manufacturers to gradually stop producing these largely obsolete units. Here are the disadvantages:
- the need for complete replacement of the working body when changing the type of seeds;
- inevitable loss of time due to reconfiguration of the sowing unit;
- much lower level of accuracy compared to an air seeder;
- a fairly high proportion of seed crushing;
- the distribution of seed materials during sowing is uneven.
At the first glance at the description of pneumatic seeders and their comparison with the characteristic disadvantages of mechanical units described above, pneumatics look more advantageous and more practical. However, a closer study of the features of the operation of the latter gives a real picture of the pros and cons.
First of all , pneumatic units are much more expensive than mechanical ones. They are also much more complex in design.
But when sowing with pneumatic seeders seed consumption is more rational. and therefore smaller in the same areas. The seeding procedure itself is carried out at a higher speed and, accordingly, in less time, under the same sowing conditions as with a mechanical machine. Row-seederswith disc openerssucceed in difficult conditions. rocky fields . as well as on comfortable and carefully prepared areas, which makes them versatile in operation. Pneumatic seeders . equipped with anchor coulters are suitable only for use on prepared fields, but such units compensate for this disadvantage with high productivity.
In addition to the actual speed of work, seeders with anchor coulters simultaneously with the introduction of seeds move crop residues and the soil that was with them from the seed row. This feature will greatly reduce the chance of root disease and/or phytotoxicity. Among the shortcomings of this type of seeders, the lack of proper control over the sowing depth should be highlighted. And also a negative factor is the significant intervention of anchor coulters in the surface layer of the soil, which can lead to moisture loss . but this is due to their design. Also, these planters will not be useful in direct seeding technology.
Factors that affect the correct choice
Experienced farmers know that it is impossible to find the perfect seed drill . just as it is impossible to have ideal fields. But you can minimize your potential problems, as well as getting the maximum benefit from using the technique.
Since there are several determining factors, the correct consideration of which will really help to achieve the desired result.
Thus, when choosing a seeder, you should:
- First , take into account availability of quality technical service, the possibility of fast and guaranteed delivery of original spare parts;
- when studying specific models in detail, it is necessary to take into account the size of the distance between the seed distribution mechanism and the soil surface, since the uniformity and accuracy of seed placement depends on this.;
- To determine the planter size (working width), consider the topographic conditions of your fields.
- does the supplier provide manufacturer's warranties for individual assemblies and parts of the unit;
- how convenient is access to the assemblies and parts of the seeder
and much more.
All of the above factors, as well as other pluses from the service, are ready to provide at Grozber Ukraine, which has many years of experience in successful cooperation with both manufacturers and farmers.