The question of choosing a combine harvester is the search for the optimal solution in agribusiness. Since the importance of this unit is difficult to overestimate, although its service life in the field is quite short (harvesting of a particular crop can last only two weeks, or rather should last no more than 2 weeks, otherwise the loss of grain scattering and reduction of its quality will be significant ), but it is the combines that bring the end result of all parts of the agricultural firm. And the size of a crop, quality of the collected cultures and the financial result of work of all collective directly depends on correctly picked up combine. At the same time it is equally difficult to choose the best option if the combine is second-hand or new - in both cases diligence at decision-making is the most important.
The most important characteristics when choosing the right combine
There are many of them, as the combine is a complex unit designed to perform various functional tasks; and the conditions of its optimal operation also include a wide range of various details, nuances that depend on the nature of a particular farm. Therefore it is necessary to consider not one, but the list of technical characteristics, choosing the most priority of them.
The efficiency of the combine is reflected in the optimal ratio of energy consumption of this mechanism or in the selection of the required engine power. In this case, the adequacy of the power level of the unit depends on the known and / or predicted threshing of grain in this farm. That is, whether the combine will be fully loaded with work and the quality of the harvested grain will not decrease.
The following parameters of the combine harvester units will help to determine in more detail:
- Grain hopper - its capacity;
- Thresher - its width;
- Harvest - the width of its capture;
- Average possible grain losses (if specified in the description of the unit);
- Term and degree of reliability of the unit as a whole;
- The organization of maintenance of the combine - absence of problems with acquisition of qualitative (original) spare parts;
- Normative volume of combine operation (according to yield conditions and size of sown areas).
The model range of combines of leading branded manufacturers includes options with different capacities - from 150 to 550 hp. Given this variability and in connection with the last of the above points, it should be noted that in fields with high yields, a powerful combine will be able to harvest grain from 50-60 hectares per day. Combines of models are able to overcome this volume of work: CLAAS TUKANO 320 and 440, CLAAS LEXION 560 and 600, CASE 2388, New Holland CR 9080, John Deere 9680WTS and possibly some others.
Types of threshing and separating devices
No less important criterion when choosing the necessary combine harvester are the types of threshing and separating device:
- Device with rotary threshing system. These are installed on the units of the brand John Deere 9880 STS, Case IH Axial-Flow AF8240 and others.
- Device with one-, two-drum threshing system, as well as with a keyboard straw walker. For example, 6-key single-drum DEUTZ-FAHR 6095 HTS and DEUTZ-FAHR 9206 TS.
- Device with hybrid threshing system: drum thresher and rotary straw walker. So in LEXION 750 CLAAS the tangential drum of a threshing machine with rotor separation.
In farms with high yields (over 40 quintals per hectare) the most effective will be rotary threshing systems. And at lower yields, not loading the rotors will reduce the quality of threshing and finer grain crushing.
In fields with high grain moisture, it is better to handle the collection of two drum units with keyboard separation. At the same time for dry breads hybrid mechanisms where threshing is drum, and separation rotary are better,
Drum-keyboard machines are considered optimal for fields with high grain clogging and rotary threshing systems are not suitable.
A very important function in the threshing-separating device is played by the range drives of the drums, as when processing wheat the rotation speed of the device is more than twice the rotation speed when processing corn (700-800 rpm and 300 rpm). If you do not take into account such a significant difference, then the grains of corn and / or sunflower will be excessively crushed and flattened, which will significantly reduce their quality.
Other important aspects of optimizing the operation of the combine
To evenly distribute the sex in the fields with yields of 40-50 kg / ha and to avoid its accumulation will need a separate sex spreader or a device for sexual transmission in the straw spreader. Then the chaff will be quite crushed and distributed across the width of the reaper.
It is also important to match the size of the auger with the width of the header, as there is a direct proportional relationship.
And finally, the successful developments of CLAAS and John Deere, which allow to exclude the human factor, are automatic programs for setting up system types (CEMOS in CLAAS and ICA in John Deere). The combine operator only sets the goal of regulating the work of the combine (improving the quality of grain, reducing losses, etc.), and the automation reconfigures the mode of operation of the combine to achieve the goal.
The information presented here more or less fully sets out the criteria for selecting an agricultural unit and, of course, in short advertisements you will not find all the information about the combine, but it can be obtained by contacting a specialist supplier and the goal will be achieved - your farm will buy the right harvester.