How to repair the seeder before sowing
Technology of cultivation crops does not accept deviations from the timing and periodicity - everything in nature has its own time. And in the agricultural company, everything should also be ready by the required date, and even better - a little earlier, just in case - suddenly spring will surprise. If harrowingyou are ready to perform, then it's time to take care of the sowing. After all, you need to have time to take advantage of all the benefits of spring moisture in the soil, and here it really saves every day for a whole year. Although you won’t get a harvest on moisture alone, you still need to sow it correctly. And this will be done by serviceable and properly adjusted seeders.
Good pre-sowing preparation starts after the end of the previous season and continues in the proper storage of the seeding units during the winter, as well as in the timely repair of failed parts and / or their replacement with necessarily original spare parts, so as not to spoil one bad part ( "a fly in the ointment") the whole beautiful mechanism ("a barrel of honey").
Actually, preparing for repairs
strong>repair your planter correctly and cost-effectively , you need to be clear about its main function in order to ensure the best performance of this particular function. In short, the main task is to introduce an accurately measured dose of seeds to a strictly specified depth. As an accompanying function, the possibility of simultaneous application of fertilizers is considered. mounted, or trailed, or self-propelled planters are used to meet different field conditions . The choice of the type of seeder depends only on the specific owner - he better know all the components of the business conditions on the territory of his agrofirm.
Now about the parts and assemblies of seeders that are subject to repair, maintenance or replacement in the first place. Most models and modifications of seeders are equipped with seed hoppers, mechanisms for providing metered supply of seeds and/or fertilizers, coulters strong> and auxiliary nodes, mechanisms. In hoppers (metal or plastic) materials are from the moment they are loaded until the time the last seed is placed in the soil, but not permanently.
For convenience and even distribution of material across the entire width of the planter, the hoppers are often divided into sections.
Mechanical or pneumatic seed metering systems often take the form of reel metering. They are divided into two types: pin or scraper, they are the ones who select the necessary portion of the seed and immediately feed it into the seed tube.
Opener models must match the tillage technology being used. For example, at minimum or zero technology, anchor coulters are used - their grooves meet the requirements of this technology. For subsurface seeding, swing openers are suitable. For traditional moldboard technology, disc openers will be optimal.
Due to the difference in sowing methods of different crops - corn, soybeans and some others with a wide row spacing; cereals, flax, herbs, etc. crops with narrow rows, the planting technique is divided into Planter (for wide row crops) and Seeder (for narrow row crops).
Which will make repairs small and infrequent
The simplest and at the same time absolutely obligatory action is the daily full cleaning of the main and auxiliary units of the seeder from all kinds of dirt, dust, small plant cuttings, fertilizer residues. this is necessary to prevent corrosion of the metal. The second step includes a thorough check of the technical condition of the unit: the reliability of fastening the wheels, the tightness of all fasteners, the tension in the transmission mechanism. The third, but no less important action is to maintenance of failed parts and replacement of non-repairable parts.
Repair of individual planter units during long-term storage
As in any mechanism, the seeder has nodes with which breakdowns occur more often. Among the typical failures in mechanical seeders, in the metering unit are worn rollers, grooves and breaking off of the ribs in the coils. And also bent square shaft, flange wear, bent antennae at the stamped meter housing, socket wear, reef breakage coils. Less common are valve breaks and coil body cracking. Restoration is possible by replacing parts of parts or the entire coil. In pneumatic seeders, before repair work, it is necessary to clean the traces of oxidation under the rubber seal. It is possible to machine coil cover, as well as prepare (clean) holes for threaded connections for a snug fit of washers with nuts in them. When installing the gasket, it is important not to allow it to be skewed and not to disturb the tension of the drive chains, and to check the device itself for its ability to perform high-quality work. Seeding units after repair must meet the following requirements: shafts - have a rectilinear shape, without nicks and burrs; coils and clutches are put on the shafts without noticeable effort; the housing of the sowing unit has no visible distortions; the socket rotates easily and without jamming in the socket; the shaft, together with the coils and couplings, moves freely and without any jamming by the regulator lever, and the lever force is not more than 10 kgf.
Since the coulters are in constant contact with the soil during operation, which acts as an abrasive material, it is natural that this fact causes wear on the disc coulters, the degree of which judged by the size of the gap between the disks. With a gap of no more than 5 mm, it is enough to flush the coulter without disassembling it, but such a simple solution is only possible if the bearing in this block is in good condition.
Single disc openers usually wear diametrically and also become blunt. In addition, the plane of the disc may be deformed due to collision with stones and other hard objects. In case of increased diametrical wear, as well as discs with a diameter of less than 300 mm and / or a thickness at the contact point of less than 1 mm, with kinks and cracks on the blade, it is necessary to remove and replace. In case of slight deformation (for example, warping), the discs straighten without heating. Leveling work is more convenient to carry out on a device with rotating rollers. In the case of sharpening the disc, it is performed from the outside on a special device, at an angle of 20 °, to the width of the chamfer, which has a size of 6-8 mm, while controlling the width of the disc and the thickness of the blade. The verification control of the correctness of the repair is the rotation of the disc without beating and without the use of effort.
In coulters with worn discs in thickness (at the place where the liners fit), it can be repaired in the following way. After complete disassembly of the coulter and its troubleshooting , subsequent straightening of the discs (if necessary) and sharpening of their blades, the liner is annealed (in a thermal furnace or forge) and machined on a lathe from the side that is adjacent to the disc , up to a thickness of at least 8 mm. Then, the inserts are clamped in the lathe chuck using a special mandrel. The surface of the liner, which is adjacent to the coulter body, is not treated.
If necessary, reduce the gap between the blades of the disc to a normal value, during the assembly of the coulter, a floating nylon ring 2.5 thick is inserted between its liner and the disc; 3.0 or 3.5 mm. The thickness of the ring is selected based on the degree of wear of the disks. As an option, it is possible to use nylon gasket instead of a nylon ring (gasket thickness 5-6 mm) The gasket is installed under the cover and riveted to the disk.
Repair of automatic seeders is carried out when the protrusions of the cellular disk, the body of the machine itself or the surface of the dog in the place of its contact with the roller are worn out, as well as the surface of the shaft is worn. To carry out repair work, the machine must be disassembled in a specific sequence of actions so that it functions after assembly.
The suitability for repair of cellular discs is determined by the degree of wear of their protrusions - the residual thickness is not less than 15 mm. The cells are subject to boring in a special fixture, which is fixed with a bracket in the support of the lathe.
In addition to the above parts, there is also frequent wear on the swivel pins in the opener block. At the same time, to eliminate the defect, it is necessary to grind new pins, or (if the degree of wear allows) to grind the defective pin to a new size, then you will need to press in a new bushing corresponding to the new size of the pin and to replace both parts in the swivel joint.
If the planter is trailed, then the drawbar may be subjected to excessive loads and in this case it may break. This block is repaired by welding, respectively preparing places for seams. And after completion of welding, the seams are cleaned and leveled. so that later, when performing maneuvers with a hitched seeder, its freedom of movement is not limited.
Frame design of the planter is a complex geometric figure with many longitudinal and transverse bars and beams. All units and parts available on the seeder are attached to it by welding through kerchiefs and brackets. Presence of damage: distortionof any beams, cracking on structural parts, corrosion on its surface is determined visually and here the practical principle applies - if damage is not visible. It means they don't exist, or they don't matter at all. Problems are eliminated as follows: bends and curvature - by straightening, with cracks and corrosive phenomena - weld an overlay to the place of damage, having previously prepared and cleaned the surfaces. To control the damaged area and additionally protect it from the external environment, the place with an overlay is painted with the further use of the unit.
Suffer from breakdowns and running parts of seeders, because in this unit of the unit everything happens in the same way as in the vehicle. This is the case with trailed planters, wheel axles which can wear in the seats under the wheel bearings, resulting in end-to-end runout. To restore them, overlays are welded onto worn seats, which are then processed on a lathe. With excessive wear at the mounting hole in the hub, the hub is bored to a new size, and then a new bushing is made, with an inner diameter corresponding to the diameter of the outer ring of the bearing. After that, the manufactured sleeve is pressed in and the bearing assembly is assembled.
But in addition to repairing various parts of the seeder that perform a technical task on this unit, there is still very important work on adjusting the scheme coulter spacing, setting marker extension and determining seeding ratesseed material.
Reliable search for spare parts to replace worn parts
As you can see from the material of the article, quite often during preparatory and repair work there is a need to purchase spare parts to replace worn ones . In a situation where you need original parts for agricultural machinery. but I wouldn't want to accidentally buy a product. which will not correspond to the quality level of the unit. on which it will be installed. Then you are welcome to us - to the company "Grozber Ukraine".
In the list of services we provide, there are many convenient options for easily solving complex problems. And we are constantly working on further development in this direction, on organizing the most convenient conditions for our customers. To this end, we have created a special mechanism that helps buyers in a variety of situations.
Sometimes you need spare parts for a particular machine, but you are not sure about the correct part number of the required items. In such a situation, our program with the expected name "Get help in the selection of parts" will come to your aid. You can easily find its description on the website of our company www.grozber.ua . There you will also find a description of the necessary details.