Which disc harrow is the best
Soil harrowing is used, as is known, to loosen its upper layer, as well as to level the field surface. These procedures are usually performed before sowing or after plowing. There are three types of harrows in total: disc , tooth and chain . Each of the types is designed for different methods of soil cultivation.
Chain harrows are mainly used only for breaking up clods of land after plowing it. toothed harrows are suitable for light soil. And for heavier soil, the best would be disc harrows, which are able to work the soil deeper. Also, this type of harrow will be more effective when harrowing after plowing and for preparing plant beds.
In order to determine which is the best disc harrow , you need to study the features of this aggregate and then decide according to which characteristics the harrow you have chosen will be better for you.
The principle of operation of the disc harrow is as follows – each disc , mounted on an axle placed inside the harrow frame, can consist of several thin discs (plates). This set of tools is usually attached to the tractor-tractor in the form of a trailer. The discs themselves rotate around their axis during the movement of the tractor with the harrow. Their movement is provided by the tractor power selection system, and their rotation may depend on the speed of the tractor.
What criteria are important for the best disc harrow. and which are not
So that the disc harrow you chose was really the best and not only at the time of purchase. and during the entire period of its exploitation, it is important to follow some rules. This is about the possible mistaken selection of models, incorrect operation and incorrect setting of disc harrows.
As when choosing any mechanism, the primary task is to determine the purpose of using this unit. Disc harrows are usually used to achieve one of three goals:
- for shallow processing and husking of grain residues and during pre-sowing processing of a layer 6 cm thick;
- for medium deep processing with mixing, grinding and cutting of plant mass (with medium soil contamination) at a depth of 7-15 cm;
- for deep disking with mixing, grinding and trimming of plant mass (with heavy soil contamination) at a depth of 7-20 cm.
Naturally, each option uses a disc harrow with the appropriate diameters of the discs, the required shapes, types of fasteners and the optimal location of the harrow axis.
For example, models of light disc harrows or peelers have a small mass, a small diameter disc and their depth is up to 7 cm. Medium models (they are also called short or discators) are equipped with < medium-sized disks and their depth is up to 12 cm. disk plows go deeper by 12-16 cm, their disks, accordingly, have large diameters.
Therefore, there is no need to use heavy aggregates to perform the husking of stubble after cereals, when a light model will do. However, if the field is littered with the remains of large-stemmed plants (corn, sunflower), then it would seem logical to use a heavy harrow, but here there is a catch - it often rains at this time of the year and then the heavy model will either be loaded or clogged with plants. The way out of the situation in the two-passage of a light model - time and fuel consumption may become more. but the result will correspond to the level of quality.
Many experts consider the most versatile disk harrows, suitable both in the fall for processing crop residues and in the spring for pre-sowing harrowing, are short two-row disk harrows. Although some of them are inclined to the fact that cultivators are more effective in the spring period. than harrows. Harrows are useful in autumn when passing after the harvester. Because, in their opinion, the harrow is "good" first of all for converting by grinding the harvest residues into organic fertilizer in the spring. and not for leveling the field for sowing. And here the truth is somewhere in the middle - because if the field is somewhat overgrown in the spring, then the harrow will both grind it and level it.
But not all experts think so. Some of them are sure that it is not a matter of disc harrows in principle. and in their basic technological scheme - for leveling the field, an equally compacted top layer will be effective leveling disks in harrows. And for crushing weeds and preventing them from sprouting in the future, double-row disc harrows with mandatory rollers will be optimal. And only when preparing the field for beetroot (since this culture requires a special approach) will a multi-row cultivator with skates cope with the task.
But for winter and spring cereals disc harrows are equally productive when used in the pre-sowing period and in autumn. Moreover . that in modern models of well-known brands, integrated discs are installed on harrows, which allow not only to prepare the soil, but also to plant crops at the same time.
As it was mentioned above, in order to fully perform work with disc harrows in the spring pre-sowing period, you need not just to purchase a harrow with a roller , but with the correct roller for rolling. Because a properly selected roller will create some reverse compaction of the soil , which will contribute to leveling, providing the necessary soil structure and covering moisture from drying out.
For this period of work and the corresponding purposes, a tandem type rink (combination of tubular and ribbed-plate surfaces) may be the most useful. Perhaps such tools will be the most effective, especially when they are used on black earth soil. rubber or segment-cone-shaped skates can be no less productive. since the fatter chernozem soil sticks less to such rinks and does not clog them. But these types of skates are not suitable for dry soil.
It should also be remembered that it is not recommended to use ice skates on light soils, because of them the soil may become excessively compacted.
Adjustment of the harrow and better selection of tool sizes and shapes
When setting up the harrow, the main indicator is ensuring continuous processing to the required seeding depth. The depth of seed wrapping minus 1 cm is considered ideal, then the immediate place of planting the seeds will be pristine and as ready as possible to promote the germination of the crop. To achieve such a result, the diameter of the discs must correspond to the required processing depth, and the harrow must be properly adjusted. It will be wrong to set the two-row disc harrow to different depths of immersion in the soil - a lower location of the front row will lead to its much faster wear, and during soil processing, the harrow will constantly lead to the side.
Therefore, it is recommended to do the opposite - to place the front row above the back row - this will equalize soil resistance for both rows. however, the depth difference is set on a case-by-case basis.
The small diameter discs have a high angular speed, so they will cut the stubble faster and smaller. This will also help the harrow to better handle corn residue. despite the thickness of its stems. In wet and heavily littered fields with harvest residues, diameter diameter will be important. but also its distance from the frame . With a larger gap, the harrow will not be blocked by vegetation or soil. And with a greater distance between the rows of disks, there will be better field alignment.
At the same time, for farms growing grain, vegetable and low-stem technical crops with medium yields, a harrow with medium discs will be better.
Depending on the type of soil in the farm, it is necessary to select disks with the appropriate cut shape. If the disc has a large cutout (in the form of a large daisy), then it will perform soil mixing and grinding residues more intensively, easily sinking to a depth, but large lumps may be formed at the same time in the soil That is, discs with similar cutouts are suitable for processing turf during initial harrowing, when the soil just needs to be broken up. Disc harrows with small notches on the discs are suitable for finishing processing before sowing, for grinding not only plant residues. and soil structure. On dense soil, smooth discs (without cutouts) will be best, but if it (soil) is light and moist, then small cutouts are still needed - smooth discs will simply slide over the surface.
On the harm of mixtures and bad properties of rubber
Sometimes farmers buy combined units , for example, a disc harrow with claws for cultivation. At the same time, it is wrong to assume. that such a combination of "two in one" will improve the result. The problem is that the disc harrow and the cultivator with paws do not match the speed of soil cultivation. The discs optimally cut and mix the soil at a speed of 12-16 km/h, and the cultivator needs no more than 11-12 km/h for effective soil mixing. And as a result: the quality of processing leaves much to be desired, excessive consumption of fuel and excessive wear and tear of working bodies, for which such a speed is too high, were admitted. And another significant disadvantage of such a harrow/cultivator is its too high price for combining.
Often, rubber dampers for cushioning are used in places where the racks of discs are attached to the frame of the harrow. But rubber has a drawback - it dries out and loses its elasticity, which causes a regular need to replace these rubber products, and in this case you will have to regularly adjust and center the location of the front row relative to the back row. And without proper regulation, it is almost impossible to achieve high-quality harrowing. And the exit is in harrows with rigid fastening of disk racks with the use of spring damping . which will eliminate the need to make frequent replacements of dampers and to center the disks "by eye". The same approach will be valid when choosing a harrow with maintenance-free disk and roller bearing assemblies. The explanation is very simple - on a harrow with a width of 8 m, there are 50 or more of these nodes, and their service will take a lot of time.
Rating of disc harrows and advice at the end
Disk harrows of the following manufacturing companies are among the best according to the above indicators: Lemken , Kuhn < strong>, Horsch , Amazone , Pöttinger and Kverneland . The list could include more manufacturers, but for orientation when choosing, it is easier to choose the best disc harrow from a small number of contenders for this title.
A final tip, even the best of the best harrows will eventually require replacement of their parts and then, in order not to ruin this best one by replacing its parts on it, but cheaper, and most importantly not original, contact maintenance and spare parts to a time-tested supplier who will supply you with genuine spare parts, assemblies, etc. as quickly as possible. The company that provides its customers with only genuine goods is called "Grozber Ukraine"